Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Kevin Mitnick :: Hacker Hackers Hacking Computers Essays

Kevin Mitnick Hacking has been around since the birth of computers. When the term hacking was first used, its meaning was not that of how we think of it today. At the origins of computing, a hacker was considered to be just a "creative programmer (Baase, 2003)." Early forms of computer games as well as the beginnings of operating systems were discovered and created by these original hackers. These hackers plunged into systems as a way of an intellectual challenge and to aspire to gain knowledge (Baase, 2003). Kevin Mitnick believes he falls into this realm of hackers. Hackers in today's era are now looked upon as criminals who invade the privacy rights of individuals and have the ability to deliver worms/viruses. The differences are that hackers today have full intentions of delivering terrible viruses and worms. Mitnick was one of the most infamous hackers during the 1980's. He molded his hacking style around the stupidity of humans and his quest for intellectual knowledge. The ways in which he w iggled his way into computer systems extenuates many of the issues surrounding computer security and privacy. Kevin Mitnick, "the worlds most notorious hacker" hacked into his first computer at the age of 16 when he hacked into Digital Equipment Corp. ( DEC) by phoning the company and claiming to be the lead developer of a new product (Weintraub, 2003). DEC then proceed to give him the passwords needed to hack into their system. Many of the jobs that Mitnick pulled exploited the ignorance of humans rather than the security software of the companies. Based on what he accomplished, he showed that a path can be made into a system without a computer or modem. This "social engineering", was Mitnick's forte. Mitnick tries to warn corporations now that "There is no patch for stupidity." (Mitnick, 2003) We are getting to an era in life were humans are not smart enough to run the machines they created. Someday computers may be run and created by other computers completely making humans obsolete in the realm of computer operation. This is a very scary thing to think about. When computers start having the ability to run themselves without human interference who knows what will happen. This is a fear that is embedded into the minds of many luddites. Where will this new technology end up? How far will it go before it destroys the integrity of life as it is now?

Monday, January 13, 2020

Mercury Effect on Seed Germination

MERCURY EFFECT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Capsicum annuum SEEDS NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (Hons. ) TECHNOLOGY AND PLANTATION MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF PLANTATION AND AGROTECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA JULY 2012 MERCURY EFFECT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF Capsicum annuum SEEDS NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN Final Year Project Report Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science (Hons. ) Technology and Plantation Management In the Faculty of Plantation and AgrotechnologyUniversiti Teknologi MARA JULY 2012 DECLARATION This Final Year Project is a partial fulfilment of the requirements for a degree of Bachelor of Science (Hons. ) Technology and Plantation Management, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA. It is entirely my own work and has not been submitted to any other University or higher education institution, or for any other academic award in this University. Where use has been made of the work of other people it has been fully acknowledged and fully referenced.I hereby assign all and every rights in the copyright to this Work to the Universiti Teknologi MARA (â€Å"UiTM†), which henceforth shall be the owner of copyright in this Work and that, any reproduction or use in any form or by any means whatsoever is prohibited without a written consent of UiTM. Candidate’s signature: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Date: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN Name: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.I hereby declare that I have checked this project and in my opinion, this project is adequate in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science (Hons. ) Technology and Planta tion Management, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA. Signature: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ DR. TSAN FUI YING Name of Supervisor: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. SENIOR LECTURER Position: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Date: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Alhamdulliah and praise be to Allah for the guidance and blessing, I was able to complete this final year project.First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Dr Tsan Fui Ying, for her guidance, advice, encouragement, good criticisms and also for he r patience in guiding me throughout fi nal year project. My special thanks from the bottom of my heart go to my parent s and my siblings for their understanding and support during my study in UiTM. Lastly, I would also like to express my special thanks to all my friends who were directly or indirectly involved in giving their ideas, advice, criticism, and moral support throughout the project. Thank you very much. NURSHAHIDA BINTI OSMAN ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background Of Capsicum annuum 1. 2 Value Of Capsicum annuum 1. 3 Background of the heavy metal 1. 4 Seed germination and growth 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8 Problem Statement Objective Of Study Significance Of Study Scope Of Study 1 2 4 4 5 6 6 6 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Source of heavy metal 2. 2 Inhibition of seed germination Environmental effect 2. 3 7 9 12 3 MATERIAL AND METHOD 3. 1 Location of study . 2 Test Material 3. 3 Experimental Procedure 3. 4 Data collection 3. 5 Experimental design 3. 6 Statistical analysis 3. 7 Work schedule 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 17 5 CONCLUSION 20 21 24 34 CITED REFERENCES APPENDICES CURRICULUM VITAE iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure Caption Page 4. 1 Germination of C. annuum seeds after treatment with HgCl2 17 4. 2 Seed germination at the 10th day with HgCl2 treatment at 25mg/l 18 v LIST OF TABLES Table Caption 1. 1 Raw chili peppers (C. annum), nutrient value per 100 g 3. 1 Work schedule for the study on germination and growth of C. nnuum after application of HgCl2 at various concentrations Germination and growth of C. annuum after treatment withHgCl2 4. 1 Page vi 3 16 18 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS UiTM Universiti Teknologi MARA Hg Mercury HgCl2 Mercury chloride mg/l milligram per liter cm Centimeter vii ABSTRACT Mercury Effect on Germination and Growth of Capsicum annuum Seeds A study was carried out to determine the germination and gro wth of Capsicum annuum after application of mercury chloride (HgCl2) at various concentrations. This study was conducted at Laboratory A603, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam.A total of 600 C. annuum seeds were used in this study. A total of 5 different concentration s of HgCl2 (0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l) were applied in this study. The treatments were carried out by means of applying the chemical to the seeds on paper towel in Petri dishes. The application volume was 2 ml per Petri dish at alternate days unless the paper towel was still moist with the previous application of solution. The data in terms of seed germination and growth, included length of radical and plumule, were recorded.This study was based on Complete Randominized Design (CRD) with 5 replicates for each treatment. All the data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and treatment means were compared using Tukey’s Simultaneous Test. The germinati on and growth of C. annuum was significantly affected by the concentration of the heavy metal under study, especially with concentration ? 50 mg/l. Radical growth was found more sensitive to the presence and concentration of HgCl 2 as compared to plumule with this fruit vegetable species. viii ABSTRAK Kesan Merkuri terhadap Percambahan dan PertumbuhanBiji Benih Capsicum annuum Satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk menentukan percambahan dan pertumbuhan biji benih Capsicum annuum selepas aplikasi merkuri klorida (HgCl2) pada kepekatan yang berbeza. Kajian ini telah dijalankan di Makmal A603, Fakulti Perladangan dan Agroteknologi, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam. Sebayak 600 biji benih telah digunakan dalam kajian ini. Sebanyak 5 kepekatan HgCl2 (0 (kawalan), 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l) telah digunakan dalam kajian ini. Rawatan ke atas biji benih adalah dengan menggunakan bahan kimia pada biji benih yang diletakkan di atas tuala kertas dalam piring Petri.Isipadu aplikasi ialah 2 ml bag i setiap piring Petri dan rawatan diulang pada selang 2 hari kecuali tuala kertas masih lembap dengan larutan sebelumnya. Data mengenai percambahan biji benih dan pertumbuhan, termasuk panjang akar dan pucuk, dicatatkan. Kajian ini dijalankan berdasarkan Rekabentuk Rambang Lengkap (CRD) dengan 5 kali pengulangan bagi setiap rawatan. Semua data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) dan purata rawatan dibandingkan dengan menggunakan Tukey’s Simultaneous Test. Percambahan dan pertumbuhan C. annuum dipengaruhi dengan ketaranya oleh kepekatan logam berat yang dikaji, terutamanya pada kepekatan ? 0 mg/l. Pertumbuhan akar didapati lebih sensitif kepada kehadiran dan kepekatan HgCl2 berbanding dengan pucuk untuk spesis sayuran buah ini. ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of Capsicum Capsicum annuum is a member of the family Solanaceae and a class of Dicotyledons. It is commonly known as Chili. Capsicum contains high amount of nutritive value such as vitami n C (ascorbic acid), A, B-complex and E along with minerals like molybdenum, manganese, folate, potassium and thiamine. Capsicum contains seven times more vitamin C than orange (Simone et al. , 1997).Capsicum terminology is quite confusing, the terminology is synonymously used for â€Å"chilli pepper† plants called such as pepper, chili, chile, chilli, aji, paprika and Capsicum. There are thought to be 25-30 Capsicum species with five different names, such as C. annuum L. , C. frustescens Mill. , C. baccatum L. , C. chinense and C. pubescens Ruiz and Pavon, which have been domesticated and currently cultivated (Csillery, 2006). Capsicum is the most widespread and widely cultivated species in subtropics and temperate countries (Belletti et al. , 1998). The scientific classification of C. nnuum is as below: 1 Kingdom : Plantae – Plants Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Subclass : Asteridae Order : Solanales Family : Solanaceae – Potato family Genus : Cap sicum L. – Pepper Species : Capsicum annuum L. – cayenne pepper Although the species name annuum means â€Å"annual† (from Latin annus â€Å"year†), the plant is not an annual and in the absence of winter frosts, it can survive several seasons and grow into large perennial shrub. The si ngle flowers are of off-white (sometimes purplish) color while the stem is densely branched and the plant can grow up to 60 centimeter tall.The fruit is berry which may be green, yellow and red when ripe. While the species can tolerate most climates, C. annuum is especially productive in warm and dry climates (Anonymous, 2012b). 1. 2 Value of capsicum Capsicums have their own benefits and values to human beings. As we know, capsicums are used in cooking and also as medicines. Capsicum is an indispensable spice used as basic ingredient in a great variety of cuisine all over the world. It is also used as flavoring, colorant and adds tang and taste to the otherwise insipid fo od. Moreover, Capsicum species are employed whole 2 r ground and alone or in combination with other flavorings agents, primarily in the pickles, stewed or barbeques (Ravishankar et al. , 2003). Table 1. 1: Raw chili peppers (C. annum), nutrient value per 100 g Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA Energy 40 Kcal 2% Carbohydrates 8. 81 g 7% Protein 1. 87 g 3% Total Fat 0. 44 g 2% Cholesterol 0 mg 0% Dietary Fiber 1. 5 g 3% Vitamins Folates 23 mcg 6% Niacin 1. 244 mg 8% Pantothenic acid 0. 201 mg 4% Pyridoxine 0. 506 mg 39% Riboflavin 0. 086 mg 6. 5% Thiamin 0. 72 mg 6% Vitamin A 952 IU 32% Vitamin C 143. 7 mg 240% Vitamin E 0. 69 mg 4. % Vitamin K 14 mcg 11. 5% Electrolytes Sodium 9 mg 0. 5% Potassium 322 mg 7% Minerals Calcium 14 mg 1. 5 % Copper 0. 129 mg 14% Iron 1. 03 mg 13% Magnesium 23 mg 6% Manganese 0. 187 mg 8% Phosphorus 43 mg 6% Selenium 0. 5 mcg 1% Zinc 0. 26 mg 2% Phyto-nutrients Carotene-? 534 mcg -Carotene-? 36 mcg -Cryptoxanthin-? 40 mcg -Lutein-zeaxanthin 709 mc g -Source: USDA National Nutrient data base (Anonymous, 2012a) 3 1. 3 Background of heavy metal According to Thomine et al. (2000), metals such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) are necessary as co-factors for many enzymatic reactions.Some metals, such as zinc (Zn), play important structural roles in proteins. Furthermore, metal cations have recently been shown to be involved in signaling in animals and plants. According to Ghavri and Singh (2010) in terms of stabilizing contaminated sites, a lower metal concentration in stem is preferred in order to prevent metal from entering into ecosystem. However, plants also need to control against excessive accumulation of essential cations and toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd2+), lead, mercury, and arsenic.When taken up in excessive quantities, these elements are transferred in the food chain where they may have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Heavy metals can enter the food chain via plant uptake (Cha yed, 2009). According to Mami (2011) from Guilan University, Rasht, Islamic Republic of Iran, heavy metals have recently received the attention of researchers all over the world, mainly due to also their harmful effect on plant. 1. 4 Seed germination and growth According to the seed physiologists, germination is defined as the emergence of the radical through the seed coat.Basic requirements for germination include water, gases, temperature and moisture availability. 4 According to Vera et al. (2010), exposure to heat and to low pH promotes germination and reduces time to germinate, which indicates that germination is related to passage of fire and to soil pH. Germination is also correlated with wet and cold conditions and dormancy can be classified as being the physiological type. In addition, it well known that temperature, light conditions, nitrates or hormonal treatment may also affect germination. In an experiment conducted by Koger et al. 2004), Caperonia palustris seeds from naturally dehisced with predominant dark gray color were exposed to pre chilling in attempts to break any dormancy mechanism imposed on seed kept at room temperature. Results showed that pre chilling did not release dormancy. Seed germinated with fluctuating 12-h light/dark and constant dark conditions. Seed germination test using buffer solutions of pH 4 to 10 recorded germination of 31 to 62% over a pH range from 4 to 10. Heavy metals may also affect seed germination, mainly believed to be attributed to toxicity effects. They can be hazardous because they cannot be estroyed or despoiled but they are bioaccumulated. 1. 5 Problem statement Capsicum annuum is a kind of fruit vegetable most commonly consumed and its production is of concerned. Like other crops, Capsicum needs to control against excessive accumulation of essential cations and toxic heavy metals for seed development and production. The heavy metals may cause a negative effect to the seed germination and growth. 5 1. 6 O bjective of study The experiment was conducted by considering the objectives of study as below: 1. To determine the mercury effect on germination of C. nnuum seeds. 2. To identify the mercury effect on subsequent initial seedling growth of C. annuum after seed germination. 1. 7 Significance of study This study is important to observe and determine the mercury effect on germination and growth of C. annuum seeds. The result from this study is hoped to provide information on germination and growth of C. annuum seeds as affected by mercury concentration in soil, e. g. ex-mining soils. 1. 8 Scope of Study The experiment conducted to identify the concentration of mercury that may affect germination and growth of C. nnuum seeds involved the seed extraction from fruits, seed treatment with mercury chloride (HgCl2), seed germination recording, measurement of length of radical and plumule, data analysis and report writing. 6 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Source of heavy metal There are man y sources of heavy metals in soil including natural sources e. g. soil parent material, volcanic eruptions, marine aerosols, and forest fires; agricultural sources e. g. fertilizers, sewage sludge, pesticides and irrigation water; energy and fuel production sources e. g. emissions from power stations; mining and smelting e. . tailing, smelting, refining and transportation (Reichman, 2002). It is generally accepted that heavy metal contamination can not only result in adverse effects on various parameters relating to plant quality and yield, but also cause changes in the size, composition and activity of the soil microbial community (Giller et al. , 1998). Heavy metals might accumulate in the food chains, with risks for the health of animals and humans, which are less sensitive to metal toxicity than plants, but they are capable of concentrating heavy metal in certain tissues and organs (Peralta et al. 2001). The influence of metals on development and reproduction of plants can be fi rstly quantified by determining the germination traits of seeds and growth performance of seedling. In the presence of high concentrations of some heavy metals, most plant species performe the reduction of seed germination and seedling growth (Patra and Sharma, 2000). 7 The high metal contents suggest the potential for heavy metal accumulation and phytotoxicity for crops grown in soils receiving the metal enriched sewage sludge.Hence, it will limit its application on land, because of the stringent regulations for land application of heavy metals i n the form of sewage (Wong et al. , 2001). The high heavy metal contents might pose a toxic effect to plants and cause heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues (Wong et al. , 2001). Many of those who performed short-term laboratory studies also discuss ed their results in relation to existing regulations for heavy metals in soils, or the possible effect of the agricultural use of metal-contaminated products such as sewage sludge, animal m anures and fungicides (Giller et al. 1998). The distribution of heavy metals in the organs of plants is not homogenous; it depends on the species and the element (Kozanecka et al. , 2002). The application of cow dung in wasteland soil not only provided nutrients for plant growth, but also stabilized the metal in the soil and reduced metal toxicity to the plant (Ghavri and Singh, 2010). According to Longman (2006), mercury is a heavy silver white poisonous metal that is liquid at ordinary temperature and it is a chemical element symbol is Hg. It is a pervasive pollutant that accumulates in organisms and is highly toxic.Elemental mercury is efficiently transported as a gas around the 8 globe, and even remote areas show evidence of mercury pollution originating from industrial sources such as power plants (Morel et al. , 1998). Mercury is a toxic heavy metal that is of significant concern as an environmental pollutant since mercury is not very phototoxic in normally occurring concentra tions. In polluted regions, mercury is a non -degradable toxic heavy metal pollutant when it is accumulated by plants. The information is scare about its uptake mechanism and growth inhibition. There are a wide range of sources that emit mercury to the atmosphere.Approximately half of the atmospheric budget of vapor-phase mercury is attributed to anthropogenic sources and half to natural source (Nriagu, 1989) The accumulation of mercury in terrestrial plants increases with increasing soil mercury concentration. Soil type has considerable influence on this process, i. e. high organic matter content will decrease uptake. Generally, the highest concentrations of mercury are found at the roots, but translocation to other organs occurs. In contrast to higher plants, mosses are known to take up mercury via atmospheric deposition (Boening, 2000).The characterization of mercury uptake showed that mercury binding is dependent on initial pH, agitation speed, amount of dosage and also the inte raction between pH and contact time (Ling, 2010). 2. 2 Inhibition of seed germination According to Longman (2006), seed is a small, hard object produced by plants, from which a new plant of the same kind grows. Poor quality seeds suffer from following problems of low germination percentage, poor 9 emergence, poor survival, and poor adaptability to site, susceptible to disease and pests, poor growth, and low productivity (Anonymous, 2011a).The characteristics of good seeds are well ripened, healthy and true to type, pure and free from inert materials and weed seeds, viable and have good germination capacity, uniform in its texture, structure and appearance, and free from damage and should not be broken and inflected by pests and diseases (Anonymous, 2011a). Seed germination is defined as the emergence and development from seed embryo of those essential structures, which are indicative of the ability of seed to produce a normal plant under favorable conditions (Anonymous, 2011a).Seeds need to be handled carefully to avoid damage to the embryo. Rough handling at threshing time can result in a lower percentage of germination. Actual tests are made at intervals to insure a good percentage of germination. Many seeds will germinate in a week or two or three weeks, but some seeds may take weeks or even years until barriers to germination are removed (Butterfield, 1967). Although seeds are rather similar in structure and in the same taxonomic family, their germination patterns are quite different (McDonald, 2011).Seeds exist in a state of dormancy, absorbing oxygen, giving off carbon dioxide, and slowly using up their stored food reserves during germination (Rindels, 1996). Every viable seed has the potential to become a plant. For this to happen, the seed must germinate, and for germination to occur, a seed 10 essentially needs water (during absorption and subsequent stages of growth), oxygen (for respiration) and temperature adequate for metabolism and growth. Some s eeds also require light and therefore must be on the soil surface in order to germinate, and not buried beneath the soil surface (McDonald, 2011).A general statement was made that percent of germination or p ercent of viable seeds of Rumex scutatus drop over time as a result of exposure to environmental conditions (Yilmaz and Aksoy, 2007). Some seeds have certain chemicals inside them to which prevent their germination, while some seeds may not have well developed embryo and require storage for a few weeks before germination can take place (Anonymous, 2011a). Some seeds present deep physiological dormancy with a very low germination percentage and they need a long time to start germination (Vera et al. , 2010).Heavy metals of Zn and ZnO particles were observed to have significant inhibition on seed germination and root growth (El-Temsah and Joner, 2010). The decrease in the value of germination percentage and germination index of the seed caused by the increased amount of metallic c ompound indicates that at a lower concentration, the contaminant posed little or no harm on the seed viability but in higher level, germination is retarded (Jaja and Odoemena, 2004). In the presence of heavy metals at certain concentrations, the radical of Arabidopsis thaliana protruded from testa, but the embryo growth was arrested beyond the point (Li et al. 2005). Although the seed coat provides some protection from metal stress prior to germination, it will eventually 11 crack or become more permeable upon germination. The current literature suggests that seed germination is affected by metals in two ways. Firstly, by their general toxicity, and secondly are by their inhibition of water uptake (Kranner and Colville, 2011). The seed injury caused by organic mercurials to cereals was characterized by abnormal germination. The primary effect of mercury could possibly be on the embryo itself, and effects on the endosperm were of secondary importance (Patra and Sharma, 2000). . 3 Env ironmental effect Salinity reduced germination percentage and also delayed the germination rate as the salt level was increased. The germination rate, germination index and coefficient of velocity of germination of forage sorghums decreased under salinity treatments. The germination percentage was a maximum in distilled water, but decreased with increasing salinity (Siti Aishah et al. , 2010). The pH of soil plays a great role in the speciation and bio-availability of heavy metals thus; the maximum allowable con centrations in soil vary with soil (Luo et al. , 2011).The percentage germination was low at acidic as well as alkaline conditions in both the sets of scarified and unscarified Solanum nigrum seeds. It was observed that neutral pH plays in an important role in increasing germination (Suthar et al. , 2009). 12 Erica australis had increased seed germination in response to factors related to passage of fire and low pH (Vera et al. , 2010). Caperonia palustris seed germination w as less than 32% at pH 4 and 10. High seed germination over a broad pH range indicated that pH may not be a limiting factor for germination in most soils (Koger et al. , 2004).The addition of lime caused a significant increase in soil pH providing an alkaline buffering capacity against heavy metal availability for the acid loamy soil while without liming the acidic soil may cause a lowering of the alkalinity of sludge resulting in a higher availability of heavy metals (Wong et al. , 2001). 13 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Location of the study This study was conducted at Laboratory A603, Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor. 3. 2 Test material Capsicum annuum fully ripe fruits were purchased from local market and a total of 600 seeds were extracted from the fruits.The seeds were cleaned with running tap water, pat dried with paper towel and air dried for two days prior to experimentation. 3. 3 Experiment procedure 3. 3. 1 Sterilizatio n of seed Seeds were rinsed with 10% Chlorox followed by 3 times rinsing with distilled water. 3. 3. 2 Treatment Seeds were germinated in enclosed Petri dishes on paper towel containing HgCl2 solutions at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/l respectively. The paper towel was moistened with 2 ml of the respective HgCl 2 solution before the seeds were placed on the paper towel for germination test. The paper towel was applied with 2 ml of the 14 espective mercury solution at alternate days unless the paper towel was still found moist with the previous application of solution. 3. 4 Data collection The germination/emergence of the seedling (radical and plumule) was recorded for a period of 10 days. Then, the length of the radical (primary root) and plumule (primary shoot) was measured at two days after germination. The other abnormal morphology, growth and development of seedlings were also recorded. 3. 5 Experimental design The experiment was based on completely randomized design (CRD) as it is the most commonly used design for laboratory research.This experiment was arranged in a CRD as a single factor experiment with 5 replicates. There were 20 seeds in each replicate. 3. 6 Statistical analysis Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out and treatment means were compared using Tukey’s Simultaneous Test. Germination percentage was transformed to arc-sine value before ANOVA. 3. 7 Work schedule This study was conducted starting from January 2011 until July 2011 (Table 3. 1). It involved extraction and cleaning of seeds, air drying of seeds, sterilization procedure, and treatment with HgCl2, data collection and data 15 analysis.At the end of this study, project report was presented orally and the written final report was submitted. Table 3. 1: Work schedule for the study on germination and growth of C. annuum after application of HgCl2 at various concentrations Weeks activities 2 Collection of material / / 8 10 / 12 14 / / / Data collection 6 / Treatment 4 Data analysis Oral presentation / Submission of report / 16 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Figure 4. 1 indicates the germination of C. annuum seeds treated with varying concentrations of HgCl2. Capsicum annuum seed germination was significantly affected by treatment with HgCl2 up to 100 mg/l (Figures 4. and 4. 2; Table 4. 1; Appendices A and B). Seeds treated ? 50 mg/l HgCl 2 showed significantly lower germination percentage and germination index as compared to the control seeds treated with distilled water and those treated with lower HgCl 2 at 25 mg/l. This trend was visible from 4 days after germination onwards until end of the study period of 10 days. Figure 4. 1: Germination of C. annuum seeds after treatment with HgCl2 17 Figure 4. 2: Seed germination at the 10th day with HgCl2 treatment at 25mg/l Table 4. 1: Germination and growth of C. annuum after treatment withHgCl2 HgCl2 mg/l) Germination % Germination index Length of radical (cm) Length of plumule (cm) 0 100 ±0 a 5. 41 ±0. 84 a 1. 75 ±0. 11 a 0. 77 ±0. 07 a 25 95 ±6. 12 a 5. 38 ±0. 59 a 1. 23 ±0. 07 b 0. 70 ±0. 06 ab 50 56 ±9. 62 b 3. 08 ±0. 73 b 0. 95 ±0. 08 c 0. 58 ±0. 11 b 75 49 ±6. 52 b 3. 16 ±0. 66 b 0. 61 ±0. 02 d 0. 36 ±0. 01 c 100 28 ±9. 08 c 1. 90 ±0. 54 b 0. 47 ±0. 02 e 0. 33 ±0. 11 c Means with the same letter within the same column are not significantly different at 5% level of significance All HgCl2 treatments ranging from 25 – 100 mg/l as studied resulted in significant inhibition of radical growth (Table 4. ; Appendi ces B and C). Growth inhibition of 18 radical increased significantly and simultaneously with increasing HgCl 2 concentration indicating that radical was very sensitive to this heavy metal. Based on Table 4. 1, plumule growth of C. annuum seeds was also affected significantly by the HgCl2 treatment (Appendices B and D). Plumule growth was less sensitive to this heavy metal; only those treated at higher rates of 75 and 100 mg/l showed significantly th e greatest inhibition effects. Heavy metal of mercury was found to affect the germination and growth of C. nnuum seeds. Based on the results, mercury at 50 mg/l was found to retard seed germination in terms of germination percentage and germination index. This concentration of mercury also affected development of radical and plumule in terms of length of the organs. Toxicity caused by the under study heavy metal at concentration of 50 mg/l was presumed to result in obvious reduced seed germination and inhibition of growth of seedlings of C. annuum. 19 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Seed germination and growth of C. annuum seedlings were affected with HgCl2 at 50 mg/l.Reduced seed germination and inhibition of seedling growth were recorded with this treatment and higher concentration of HgCl2. The seeds of this fruit vegetable can be concluded to be sensitive to mercury contamination. 20 CITED REFERENCES Anonymous. (2012a). Chili peppers nutrition facts. Retrieved 20 May 2012, from http://www. nutrition-and-you. com/chili-peppers. html Anonymous. (2012b). PLANTS Profile Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum cayenne pepper Retrieved 20 May 2012, from http://plants. usda. gov/java/profile? symbol=CAAN4 Anonymous. (2011a). Seed technology.Retrieved 21 September 2011, from http://ifs. nic. in/rt/main/courses/seed_tech. pdf Belletti, P. , Marzachi, C. & Lanteri, S. (1998). Flow cytometric measurement of nuclear DNA content in Capsicum (Solanaceae). Plant Systematic and Evolution 209: 85-91. Boening, D. W. (2000). Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: a general review. Chemosphere 40:1335-1351. Butterfield, H. M. , (1967). Seed germination. California Horticultural Society Journal 28(2):1-9. Retrived 20 May 2012 from http://www. calhortsociety. org/ Bulletins/journal-articles/seed-germination. html Chayed, N. F. (2009).Determination of Heavy Metal Uptake by Acacia magnium Grown in Ex-mining Area in Kg Gajah, Perak. Universiti Teknologi MARA. Csillery G. (2006) Pepper ta xonomy and the botanical description of the species, Acta Argon Hung. 5: 151-166. El-Temsah, Y. S. , & Joner, E. J. (2010). Impact of Fe and Ag nanoparticles on seed germination and differences in bioavailability during exposure in aqueous suspension and soil. Environmental Toxicology DOI 10. 1002/tox. Ghavri, S. V. , & Singh, R. P. (2010). Phytotranslocation of Fe by biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas L. grown on iron rich wasteland soil. Braz. J. Physiol. 22(4): 235243.Giller, K. E. , Witter, E. , & McGrath, S. P. (1998). Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: A review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30(10/11): 1389-1414. Jaja, T, E. , & Odoemena, C. S. I. (2004). Effect of Pb, Cu and Fe compounds on the germination and early seedling growth of tomato varieties. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 8(2): 51-53. 21 Koger, C. H. , Reddy, K. N. , & Poston, D. H. (2004). Factors affecting seed germination, seedling emergence, and survival of texas weed (Caperonia palustris). Weed Science 52: 989-995. Kozanecka, T. , Chojnicki, J. , & Kwasowski, W. (2002).Content of heavy metals in plant from pollution-free regions. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 11(4): 395-399. Kranner, I. , & Colville, L. (2011). Metals and seeds: Biochemical and molecular implications and their significance for seed germination. Environmental and Experinmental Botany. 72(1): 93-105 Li, W. , Khan, M. A. , Yamaguchi, S. & Kamiya, Y. (2005). Effect of heavy metal on seed germination and early seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Growth Regulation 46: 45-50. Ling, T. , Fangke, Y. , & Jun, R. (2010). Effect of mercury to seed germination, coleoptile growth and root elongation of four vegetable.Research Journal of Phytochemistry 4(4): 225-233. Longman (2006). Dictionary of Comtemporary English. Pearson Education Limited: 1950. Luo, C. , Liu, C. , Wang, Y. , Liu, X. , Li, F. , Zhang, G. , & Li, X. (2011). Heavy metal contamination in soils and v egetables near an e-waste processing site, south China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 186(1): 481-490. Mami, Y. , Ahmadi, G. , Shahmoradi, M. , & Gorbani, H. R. (2011). Influence of different concentration of heavy metals on the seed germination and growth of tomato. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 5(6): 420-426. McDonald, M. B. 2011). Physiology of Seed Germination. Retrieved 23 November 2011, from http://seedbiology. osu. edu/HCS631_files/4A%20Seed%20germination. pdf Morel, F. M. , Kraepiel, A. M. , & Amyot, M. , (1998). The chemical cycle and accumulation of mercury. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 54-566. Nriagu, J. O. (1989). A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals. Nature 338: 47-49. Patra, M. , & Sharma, A. (2000). Mercury toxicity in plant. The Botanical Review 66(3): 379-422. Peralta, J. R. , Gardea-Torresdey, J. L. , Tiemann, K. J. , Gomez, E. , Arteaga, S. , Rascon, E. & Parsons, J.G. (2000). Study of the ef fect of heavy metal on seed germination and plant growth on alfalfa plant (Medicago sativa) grown in solid media. Proceeding of the 2000 Conference on Harzardous Waste Research: 135-140. 22 Ravishankar, G. A. , Suresh, B. , Giridhar, P. , Rao, S. R. and Johnson, T. S. (2003). Biotechnological studies on Capsicum for metabolite production and plant improvement. In: Amit Krishna, D. E. , (ed. ). Capsicum: The genus Capsicum. Harwood Academic Publishers, UK,: 96-128. Reichman, S. M. (2002). The Responses of Plants to Metal Toxicity: A review focusing on Copper, Manganese and Zinc.Australian Minerals & Energy Environment Foundation, Victoria, Australia: 1-54. Rindels, S. (1996). Successful seed germination. Horticulture and Home Pest News IC-475(2), Iowa State University. Retrived from http://www. ipm. iastate. edu/ipm/ hortnews/1996/2-9-1996/seed. html Simone, A. H. , Simone, E. H. , Eitenmiller, R. R. , Mills, N. R. , & Green, N. R. , (1997). Ascorbic acid and provitamin a contents in usually colored bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. ). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 10(4): 299-311. Siti Aishah, H. , Saberi, A. R. , Halim, R. A. , & Zaharah, A. R. (2010). Salinity effects on germination of forage sorghums.Journal of Agronomy 9(4): 169-174. Suthar, A. C. , Naik, V. R. , & Mulani, R. M. (2009). Seed and seed germination in Solanum nigrum Linn. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 5(2): 179-183. Thomine, S. , Wang, R. , Ward, J. M. , Crawford, N. M. , & Schroeder, J. I. (2000). Cadmium and iron transport by members of a plant metal transporter family in Arabidopsis with homology to Nramp genes. PNAS 99(9): 4991-4996. Vera, D. T. , Martin, R. P. , & Oliva, S. R. (2010). Effect of chemical and physical treatment on seed germination of Erica australis. Ann. Bot. Fennici 47: 353-360. Wong, J. W. C. , Lai, K. M. D. , Su.S. & Fang, M. (2001). Availability of heavy metals for Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic loamy soil amended with domestic and indust rial sewage sludge. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 128:339-353. Yilmaz, D. D. , & Aksoy, A. (2007). Physiological effects of different environmental conditions on the seed germination of Rumex scutatus L. (Polygonaceae). Erciyes Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi 23(1-2): 24-29. 23 APPENDIX A Germination of C. annuum seeds HgCl2 (mg/l) 0 25 50 75 100 Replicate 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 2 2 3 7 5 8 6 7 4 5 7 5 2 3 3 2 6 3 4 5 2 3 3 2 2 1 24 4 7 8 5 9 6 6 6 5 5 4 2 6 4 3 1 2 3 5 3 2 4 4 1 4 Period (days) 6 5 6 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 3 3 5 2 3 1 1 5 1 1 2 8 4 2 3 1 1 3 2 2 2 5 3 2 10 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 APPENDIX B ANOVA Sum of Squares df Mean Square germination Between Groups Within Groups G. I Length of radical Length of plumule Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total 12408. 834 4 3102. 208 707. 247 20 F Sig. 35. 362 13116. 081 48. 100 9. 246 57. 346 5. 203 .091 5. 294 .758 .130 .888 25 24 4 20 24 4 20 24 4 20 24 12. 025 .462 87. 726 . 000 26. 011 . 000 1. 301 286. 374 . 000 .005 .190 .007 29. 159 . 00 Multiple Comparisons Tukey HSD Dependent Variable (I) treatment (J) treatment germination 0 25 50 75 100 25 0 50 75 100 50 0 25 75 100 75 0 25 50 100 100 0 25 50 75 95% Confidence Interval Mean Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig. 9. 72566 3. 76098 . 111 Lower Bound Upper Bound -1. 5286 20. 9799 3. 76098 . 000 30. 2341 52. 7426 3. 76098 . 000 34. 3137 56. 8222 3. 76098 . 000 47. 0576 69. 5661 -9. 72566 3. 76098 . 111 -20. 9799 1. 5286 41. 48839 * 45. 56795 * 58. 31190 * 31. 76273 * 3. 76098 . 000 20. 5085 43. 0170 35. 84229 * 3. 76098 . 000 24. 5880 47. 0965 48. 58623 * 3. 76098 . 000 37. 3320 59. 8405 -41. 48839 * . 76098 . 000 -52. 7426 -30. 2341 -31. 76273 * 3. 76098 . 000 -43. 0170 -20. 5085 4. 07956 3. 76098 . 812 -7. 1747 15. 3338 16. 82351 * 3. 76098 . 002 5. 5693 28. 0778 -45. 56795 * 3. 76098 . 000 -56. 8222 -34. 3137 -35. 84229 * 3. 76098 . 000 -47. 0965 -24. 5 880 -4. 07956 3. 76098 . 812 -15. 3338 7. 1747 12. 74395 * 3. 76098 . 022 1. 4897 23. 9982 -58. 31190 * 3. 76098 . 000 -69. 5661 -47. 0576 -48. 58623 * 3. 76098 . 000 -59. 8405 -37. 3320 -16. 82351 * 3. 76098 . 002 -28. 0778 -5. 5693 -12. 74395 * 3. 76098 . 022 -23. 9982 -1. 4897 26 Multiple Comparisons Tukey HSD 95% Confidence Interval Mean Difference (I-J)Dependent Variable (I) treatment (J) treatment G. I 0 25 .03500 .43003 1. 000 -1. 2518 1. 3218 50 2. 33000 * .43003 . 000 1. 0432 3. 6168 2. 25333 * .43003 . 000 .9665 3. 5401 3. 51167 * .43003 . 000 2. 2249 4. 7985 0 -. 03500 .43003 1. 000 -1. 3218 1. 2518 50 2. 29500* .43003 . 000 1. 0082 3. 5818 75 2. 21833 * .43003 . 000 .9315 3. 5051 3. 47667 * .43003 . 000 2. 1899 4. 7635 -2. 33000 * .43003 . 000 -3. 6168 -1. 0432 -2. 29500 * .43003 . 000 -3. 5818 -1. 0082 75 -. 07667 .43003 1. 000 -1. 3635 1. 2101 100 1. 18167 .43003 . 082 -. 1051 2. 4685 0 -2. 25333 * .43003 . 000 -3. 5401 -. 9665 25 -2. 21833* .43003 . 000

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Before Going Bankrupt In 2001 Enron Corporation Was One

Before going bankrupt in 2001 Enron Corporation was one of the biggest incorporated natural gas and electricity companies on earth. It dealt with selling natural gas liquids worldwide, and operated one of the biggest natural gas transmission systems in the world. They had become one of the largest developers and producers of electricity in the world, and supplied industrial and evolving markets including individual consumers. Enron was a major dealer of solar and wind renewable energy globally, had a strong risk management service for a large collection of its natural gases contracts, and was one of the biggest oil and gas exploring companies around the world. They were the leading wholesale marketer of natural gas and electricity in the†¦show more content†¦Deregulation of the energy market left the big companies in the market of energy to control their operations and allowed them to sway the market in their favor. This influence over the market led Enron to fabricate elect ricity shortage, with that they were able to increase its demand, and then boost its price to profit more revenues. According to Public Citizen, â€Å"Enron and its chief executive officer, Kenneth Lay, have been remarkably successful in lobbying the executive branch, leaders in Congress and various federal regulatory officials to withdraw government monitoring of many corporate activities within domestic energy markets.† Additional, Public Citizen says that in deregulation, the ethics of transparency, accountability, and citizen oversights, which were major causes of downfall for Enron, are ignored, yet, they are crucial factors that ensure the market is operating well (Healy, 2003). Before deregulation energy contracts were negotiated under regulated trading laws, which required information on prices be reported including the amount that was traded. 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Saturday, December 28, 2019

Truths Exposed in John Steinbecks Of Mice and Men Essay

Truths Exposed in Of Mice and Men John Steinbecks timeless novel Of Mice and Men is a somewhat controversial story of the hardships of life. To illustrate these hardships, Steinbeck takes the reader back to an era of bankruptcies, migrant workers, and drifters. Today, this time, the 1930s, is branded the Great Depression. The quest of George and Lennie, two migrant workers, is an example of the dilemma of thousands of homeless and unemployed men in America during the Great Depression era (Ito 39). The harsh circumstances presented by the Great Depression reveal a darker side of human nature. In order to survive, a mans priority had to be himself. Through his characters, Steinbeck exposes truths about people and life in†¦show more content†¦Curley misjudges Lennie, thinking that since Lennie is retarded he will be able to easily whoop him and make himself look good for beating a much bigger man. As seen through the character of Crooks, the need for interaction with other people is demonstrated. The setting of this story perfectly emphasizes the theme of mans need for companionship, or, as Donald Pizer calls it, fear of apartness (Owens 145). Due to the racial discrimination of that time, Crooks, a disabled black man, goes through life all alone. When retarded Lennie, who is too innocent to show bigotry towards anyone, starts an exchange with Crooks, Crooks immediately opens his heart to Lennie. Steinbeck writes, Crooks scowled, but Lennies disarming smile defeated him. Come on in and set a while, Crooks said... His tone was a little more friendly (Steinbeck 69). Though Lennie is not bright enough to comprehend any of Crooks feelings, to just have another person there to talk to is adequate for Crooks. Donald Pizer, a noted critic, agrees when he says, One of the themes of Of Mice and Men is that men fear loneliness, that they need someone to be with and to talk to who will o ffer understanding and companionship (Owens 146). This need for contact with others is somewhat incongruous when compared to the world at present. Today inequity is not nearly the problem it once was, yet people frequently choose to immerse themselves in front of aShow MoreRelatedJohn Steinbeck s Social Responsibility1747 Words   |  7 PagesUnited States are being treated extremely fairly, and they are receiving the help that they need. But this improvement in treatment does not come without the hard work of numerous people throughout the decades. One of the many people is John Steinbeck. Steinbeck’s emphasis on social responsibility brought much light to many important issues in the country. Seeing as how Lennie, who is intellectually ill, is a one of the main characters, Steinbeck clearly believed that the treatment of the mentallyRead MoreEssay on Censorship - To Censor Literature is to Censor Life2196 Words   |  9 Pageslying as in magic preservation in the pages o f books.   They are the chosen possession of men.   Thomas Carlyle spoke these words in the early 19th century.   Two hundred years later, it seems we still do not understand the breadth and magnificence of the written word.  Ã‚   Americans have forgotten the magical experiences that can be found in the pages of books.   Instead of respecting the chosen possession of men, they wield it as a tool to achieve their own ends.   If we lose our respect for knowledge

Friday, December 20, 2019

Skills, Traits, And Characteristics Of A Successful...

Skills, Traits, and Characteristics of a Successful Entrepreneur Anonymous Author University of the People Entrepreneurship 1 3303 Abstract Skills, traits or characteristics are essential ingredients in being a successful entrepreneur. Although these ingredients are numerous, an entrepreneur should develop the ones that are relevant to becoming successful. This paper will first examine skills, traits, and characteristics that are more important to have as an entrepreneur. Then, we researched and explored entrepreneurs who co-founded an intriguing online business that has gravitated to other countries and finally, we examine how they started the business and what they are doing to remain successful in their entrepreneurial venture. Skills, Traits, and Characteristics of a Successful Entrepreneur Which of the skills, traits or characteristics of entrepreneurs do you think would be the most important to have? There are numerous skills, traits, and characteristics of entrepreneurs that would be most important to have. However, while it may not be necessary to have all to be a successful entrepreneur, the following skills, traits, and characteristics would be the most important to have. Personal Characteristics: Under this category, it would be important for an entrepreneur to have optimism, the hopeful feeling that all is going to turn out well. An entrepreneur should have a vision, the ability to envisage a compelling future and articulate it to others. AnShow MoreRelatedOverview of Entrepreneurship1418 Words   |  6 Pagessuch as labor, land and capital in order to realize profits. An entrepreneur is any person with the ability to manage, assume the risk, and conduct business in order to gain profits. An entrepreneur can identify opportunities, combine locally available resources, and make a plan to start a business. In simple terms, an entrepreneur is someone who can create value in resources. Entrepreneurship is a day-to-day activity where an entrepreneur regularly comes up with new ways of doing business and creatingRead MoreCharacteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs1015 Words   |  5 PagesCharacteristics of successful entrepreneurs An entrepreneur is someone with the capacity to lead a business to success and is willing to take the risks in order to accomplish their goals. (Dollonger, 2002). Starting a new business is an example of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs are very important in order for any business to succeed, however, only some entrepreneurs will succeed in life. Here are some of the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Passion Most successful entrepreneurs are haveRead MoreThe Term Entrepreneurship 1558 Words   |  7 Pagesinterpreted in different ways. Although entrepreneurs may not be aware of these definitions, they engage in their own version of what entrepreneurship is, and researchers found that they show characteristics from one of two models (Gilad and Levine, 1986) that lead to how decisions are made in their enterprise. Despite having two different models, an entrepreneur may not always fall under either category, and the American entrepreneur Kim Bentham exhibits characteristics for both models. Kim a New HampshireRead MoreEntrepreneurship Is A Nature Or Nurture Process Essay1468 Words   |  6 Pagesdefinition of entrepreneurship (Schaper, 2014). For the context of this essay, however, it is a process that brings together a team- with a leading entrepreneur-, an opportunity, the right resources, an organisation, and an appropriate environment (Massey, 2011; Schaper, 2014). This essay argues why such a process is not defined by the actions or characteristics of just one individual. Firstly, entrepreneurial attributes and different personality types are discussed, followed by an argument on the differentRead MoreThe Successful Entrepreneurs1264 Words   |  6 PagesBUSINESS MANAGEMENT ( FMG0044 ) ASSIGNMENT 1 : â€Å" THE SUCCESSFUL ENTREPRENEURS † Lecturer : Sir Azizi Name : 1) Ahmad Zul Iqmal B. Zulkifli (012012051643) 2) Khoo Chee Hong (012012050692) CONTENT 1) Introduction 2) Profile / Background of the entrepreneur 3) The success characteristics / traits of the entrepreneur 4) How should I imply his / her success attitude to improve my personal development / my life ? 5) Conclusion INTRODUCTION EntrepreneurshipRead MoreTraits and Skills Theory: A Doctoral Learner Comparison Approach in Understanding Leadership Traits and Skills1288 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Traits and Skills Theory: A Doctoral Learner Comparison Approach in Understanding Leadership Traits and Skills Patricia Faison Grand Canyon University LDR 802 August 21, 2013 Traits and Skills Theory: A Doctoral Learner Comparison Approach in Understanding Leadership Traits and Skills Two empirical research studies were compared in the comparison matrix. The articles were located in the Grand Canyon University library. Article one written by Connelly, et alRead MoreDifferent Empirical Research Studies From The Book The Grand Canyon University Library By Baum And Locke1173 Words   |  5 PagesEntrepreneurial Traits, Skill, and Motivation to Subsequent Venture Growth.† Article two written by Connelly, et al. (2000), is entitled: â€Å"Exploring the Relationship of Leadership Skills and Knowledge to Leader Performance.† Article one contributes to the dread of personal characteristic and the effects they may have on entrepreneur, was to examine military leaders, and civilian leadership skills which are critical to being a successful leader. Article two examines leadership characteristics and capabilitiesRead MoreCharacteristics of a Successful Entrepreneurial Management Team1290 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"All the world loves an entrepreneur†. They are role models for kids, they are perceived as being honest, bright, hard-working and successful. People want to be entrepreneurs; policymakers are busy trying to find, encourage and grow entrepreneurs because of their positive effect on jobs and productivity. Greg Watson (2011) writes, â€Å"The entrepreneurial mind thrives in environments of uncertainty, diversity of culture, talent and opportunity. These three areas of characteristics provide broad insightsRead MoreEnterprise, Entrepreneurship And Intrapreneurship. Enterprise1638 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Entrepreneur came from the French word called ‘Enteprendre’, which means ‘to undertake’ when translated into English and that is what entrepreneurs basically do. This report not only discusses what entrepreneurship is but also the different methods an entrepreneur can use to develop a business and how a new/fresh business can help the economy and third world countries too. This report explains what can go wrong within a business and what sorts of misconceptions there are, and if they’reRead MoreThe Practice Of Entrepreneurship Through Time And The Global Enterprise1642 Words   |  7 Pages2011). The entrepreneur exudes behaviors which foster initiative, orchestrate options, and accept responsibility for the success or failure (Arthur Hisrich, 2011). Entrepreneurship has transformed the global marketplace and imprinted all disciplines. Therefore, a balanced discussion on identifying features, characteristics, and venues of consequence for an entrepreneur will drive the direction of this analysis. Identifying Personality, Social, Cognitive, Behavioral Features The skills and abilities

Thursday, December 12, 2019

It has been said that Wordsworths Lucy poems have more differences than similarities Essay Example For Students

It has been said that Wordsworths Lucy poems have more differences than similarities Essay They were written chiefly with a view to ascertain how far the language of conversation in the middle and lower classes of society is adapted to the purposes of poetic pleasure. (William Wordsworth, Preface to The Lyrical Ballads). Unlike poets before him, who wrote poetry solely based upon classical subjects, Wordsworth wanted his poetry to imitate the actions and thoughts of people like himself. He also wrote poems containing personal subject matter, such as the group of poems known as the Lucy poems, written in conjunction with Samual Coleridge. This made his work strangely revolutionary at the time. This and the simple language of these poems (The Lyrical Ballads, 1798) show Wordsworth being extremely daring with his wish to get them published. The Lyrical Ballads were simply nothing like anyone had ever read before. The poems were intended as a revolution, as explained by Wordsworth in the Preface to the Lyrical Ballads. These poems are grouped together in The Lyrical Ballads, for many different reasons. The form the poems have is very similar. Four of the poems are made up of a number of quatrains with a rhyming pattern of A-B-A-B. The fifth poem, Three years she grew, is less direct. It is made up of sextets with rhyming pattern A-A-B-C-C-B. These regular rhythms to the poems add to the sense of similarity and also to the simplicity of the poems. The simplicity of the language Wordsworth uses is present in all of the poems, however one poem in particular is more elaborate than the others. The word order in Strange fits of passion is more complicated than in I travelled among unknown men. This is used to emphasise the words at the end of the sentence; and wayward thoughts will slide. Wordsworth aimed for this simplicity of language. Its almost child-like which was contrary to poets before Wordsworths time. Also unlike poetry before was the nature of the subject matter. Wordsworth wrote of his personal feelings. These poems are grouped together because they all focus on Wordsworths sense of loss for Lucy. He uses one particular method of doing this at the end of She dwelt among. He uses an apostrophe; and, oh the difference to me. This is also the very last sentence of this poem. It is also the first time he mentions himself. The apostrophe is used to emphasise the word me, but also to mimic a sobbing rhythm, which emphasises t he sense of loss he feels for Lucy. The poem, She dwelt among, concentrates solely on Lucy. Apart from the last word, the poem serves as an introduction to Lucy, informing us of Wordsworths feelings for her and also informing us that she is dead. This is different from the other poems as they mainly concentrate on Wordsworth and mostly mention Lucy only once or two times. This fact leads me to believe that this could be the first Lucy poem and is an introduction to the others. Conversely, the rhyming pattern and more elaborate language Wordsworth uses in Three years she grew, makes me think that this was not intended to be part of the same group as the other Lucy poems despite the similar subject matter. Wordsworth shows a strong sense of the natural world around him in all of his Lucy poems. This is one of the main recurring themes included in the poems. There is often nature speaking; Then Nature said, A lovelier flower' This is in Three years she grew. Wordsworth also uses this in Strange fits of passion. Here there is a preface to nature, What once to me befell, lasting one stanza, then a conclusion in the final stanza, What fond and wayward thoughts will slide. This encloses five quatrains of Wordsworth noticing the nature around him; All over the wide lea. In She dwelt among, Wordsworth says, A violet by a mossy stone half-hidden from the eye! this emphasises the sense of something only half being there, Thy mornings showed, thy nights concealed. When Wordsworth writes about this emotion he is referring to Lucy being dead, But shes in her grave, but part of her still existing in his mind, the memory of what has been. The poems also place Lucy in part of a balanced system in ear ths diurnal course. This is achieved principally in Three years she grew. Wordsworth achieves this by using a stanza full of oxymorons. Law and impulse, and glade and bower, are two examples. Wordsworth also describes Lucy as a rose in June in Strange fits of passion. By comparing Lucy to a rose he is telling us that as roses in June dont last, Lucy wont last. This is contrary to the violet in She dwelt among, which is a rare flower signifying Lucys beauty and bashfulness. In Strange fits of passion, Wordsworth mentions an orchard-plot. This may represent a likeness to the Garden of Eden, which in turn signifies Wordsworths feelings that Lucy is heavenly, almost goddess-like status. In this poem, Strange fits of passion, there is a strong sense of attachment to the landscape emphasised by the continuous reference to the hill, and the wide lea. In the same poem, Wordsworth brings in a very tight focus on ordinary things and makes them seem special; My horse moved on, hoof after hoof. This is induced by: one of those sweet dreams. A Comparison of Love Poetry EssayIt is about a one-way emotional exchange between Wordsworth and Lucy. This is different from She dwelt among which does not speak of Wordsworths emotions. Both stanzas are also to do with passage of time; The touch of earthly years. There is also no sense of location in the poem. Differing to these poems is the poem Strange fits of passion. This poem commences with a preface to the narrative. This narrative tells of an actual event (Wordsworth approaching Lucys cottage on his horse), And, as we climbed the hill. As they climb the hill, Wordsworth says: Those paths so dear to me. This is a sharp contrast to the untrodden ways. In the conclusion to this narrative, in the final stanza, we see Wordsworth worrying about Lucy. We find out that she is not actually already dead; If Lucy should be dead! this is also a contrast to the other poems where Lucy is already dead. This adds drama and suspense to the poem, which entices the reader. I think this is a key effect, which makes this poem different from the other Lucy poems. The poem I travelled among unknown men, brings in a third party which none of the other poems have. What love I bore to thee. Here, Wordsworth isnt talking about Lucy. He is in fact speaking of his love for England. He has gone to France but realised how much he misses his homeland and what it contains, Lucy. He uses personification to describe England, to love thee more and more. I think that this works well in conjunction with his effective use of metaphor and simile when describing Lucy. It also brings variation into the Lucy poems, which works to differentiate this poem from the others. The way in which Wordsworth varies Three years she grew is to use a different rhyming pattern and by using sextets in place of quatrains. I think this makes the poem differ too much from the others and I would not include it in the same group as the four other Lucy poems. It also is narrative, but it is nature narrating; This child I to myself will take. This means it is less about Wordsworths feelings which makes it differ. This shows that the poems contradict each other in many ways. Lucy is the only real constant in each of the poems. Lucy is the person with which the poems are concerned. But who is Lucy? To find out we need to examine the evidence presented in the poems. There are many clues presented to us as to Lucys life. As to her age, a maid (meaning virgin). This implies that she is young. However, she is old enough to have a profession and work as a spinner Turned her wheel. She does this in her own house, Lucys cottage, which is perhaps in solitude away from any of her family and friends: she lived unknown, and very few to love. We also find out that Wordsworth was having a relationship with her: The joy of my desire. If Wordsworth was writing about a real-life love, she could have been perhaps Annette Vallon, the women he had a relationship with while in France. However evidence in I travelled among unknown men (in France) points to Lucy being in England: Thy mornings showed thy nights concealed, the bowers where Lucy played. It might also have been Mary Hutchinson, his future wife. Some people also say that Lucy is really Dorothy, his sister. It is also thought that Wordsworth was, consciously or not, having some feelings for her. His extreme guilt at such feelings explains why Lucy is killed off in the poems! However, I prefer to think of Lucy as, above all, one or more imaginary creations of Wordsworths own fertile psyche. It is obvious to me that there are many similarities and also many differences between these poems. I believe that these differences were inevitable in order to make the poems as varied as possible but at the same time intending them to be taken as a group. This groups intention was to describe figments of Wordsworths imagination known only to us as Lucy.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Consider the Dramatic Importance of Act 3 Scene V of Romeo and Juliet Essay Example For Students

Consider the Dramatic Importance of Act 3 Scene V of Romeo and Juliet Essay In this scene Romeo meets Juliet in her bedroom and they consume their relationship. After that the nurse knocks on the door so Romeo has to hide. The Nurse comes and warns Juliet that her mother is coming. Then Lady Capulet comes in and thinks that Juliet is sad and downhearted because of Tybalts death. Juliet also pretends that she wants to kill Romeo because she cant admit to her mother that she has married him. Then the Capulet comes into the room as well and starts telling Juliet how vitally important is for her to get married to Paris. The whole scene occurs just after Romeo and Juliet married. Only the Nurse knows about the secret marriage from all of the Capulets. This is important to the play because the Nurse has taken the role of Juliets mother and Juliet confides everything with her instead of Lady Capulet. This scene relies for its dramatic impact partly on the fact that some people know certain things that must be hidden form other people. For example the only people that know about the wedding of Romeo and Juliet are Friar Lawrence and the Nurse. Another example is that only Capulet, Lady Capulet and the Nurse know about the arranged marriage between Paris and Juliet. The dramatic effect of the audience knowing all that has happened is called dramatic irony. This means that the audience knows things that are unknown for some of the characters in the play and then the audience sees how these events happen even though they know before. Shakespeare has used a lot of dramatic irony throughout the whole play because that involves the audience much more into the action and it was also fashionable at that time to write in this style. In this particular scene Shakespeare has used dramatic irony when the Nurse tells Juliet that her mother is coming, but the audience already knows what the message is that her mother is bringing. By using this technique the writer makes the audience feel sympathy towards Juliet. Another key point in this scene is the way Juliet uses speaks and the words that she uses. The words and phrases that she uses are ambiguous. Madam, I am not well. Her mothers response is immediate and she is obviously thinking that Juliet is sad because of Tybalts death, but actually Juliet is downhearted because of Romeo. This shows us another side to Juliets character. Before she had seemed young and eager to please her parents. A good example is when she agrees and accepts Paris for here husband before the ball where she meets Romeo. She has done that only to please her parents and not for self satisfaction. But since she has met Romeo and fallen in love with him she is showing rebelliousness and her willingness to stand up to her parents and defy them. Even though it is a very short period according to Shakespeare she has matured even though she is very young. In my opinion this is done because in the Elizabethan period people used to live to a much lower age than people do nowa days and a mature person was considered in the age group of thirteen to fourteen. Also people used to get married at the age that Juliet is in the play. We also see another side of Juliets parents and the Nurse in this scene. Previously Lord Capulet has been against young marriage and for his daughter to get married, but things quickly change as Paris appears. Because Paris is the perfect boy for in his views, Lord Capulet will want to marry his daughter to him because he sees benefits form this marriage for the whole family and also it is the perfect husband for Juliet. Form this, the audience can judge the character and realise that Lord Capulet doesnt actually care about how happy his daughter is. Lady Capulet also fails her daughter. She is supporting her husband in terms of making Juliet marry Paris and although Lady Capulet used to listen to what her daughter actually wanted now this has totally changed. Marry, my child, early next Thursday morn,The gallant, young and noble gentleman,. No matter what Juliet says Lady Capulet is definite for their marriage with Juliet. .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d , .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .postImageUrl , .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d , .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:hover , .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:visited , .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:active { border:0!important; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:active , .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue39aa7e96773b111582f091c4206138d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How might Shakespeare have directed this scene to appeal to his whole audience? EssayWhen Juliet doesnt get any support in what she wishes she seeks help and advice from no other but the Nurse, as Lady Capulet has swapped roles with the Nurse of being a mother. Until now she has been the most supportive figure in Romeo and Juliets relationship and she has been the closest person to Juliet as well. However, when Juliet decides to look for an advice the Nurse tells her to forget about Romeo and that she should see if she likes Paris. I think it best you married with the county. O, hes a lovely gentleman! Here the Nurse shows her admiration towards Paris and she, just like Ju liets parents, think that Paris is the prefect man. Juliet is appalled by what the Nurse has sad, because the audience knows that Juliet is still deeply in love with Romeo and this once again is one of Shakespeares techniques to make the audience feel sympathy toward Juliet and her relationship with Romeo. In the 21st century we might be appalled by this treatment of Juliet, but in the in the 16th century when the play was actually written, the audience might not find it so strange. Lord Capulet is angry with Juliet because the marriage to Paris which Julie refuses is really important to him and the benefit of the whole family. Also the authority the father had over the children was much more different then it is nowadays. As for lady Capulet, her role as wife would be just to serve her husband and to do what he says and what he thinks is right. During the Elizabethan period women were treated very differently form men and their roles I society were very limited. Women were regarded as the weaker sex not just physically but emotionally as well. Shakespeare has created Lady Capulets character to show the audience how women were being treated at that time. The audience might be surprised at the Nurses attitude because of her close relationship with Juliet, but she is a servant and therefore no matter how close and important she is to Juliet, she still has a relatively low position in the household, and the fact that she relies on Lord Capulet for her employment makes her even more dependant to Lady and Lord Capulet for her employment. Overall this is one of the most dramatically important scenes in the play because form here the play significantly changes and Juliets position changes as well. The scene is also significant because it sets out the basics for the rest of the play as Juliet doesnt want to marry Paris and Friar Lawrence gives her a potion so that she could pretend she is dead. At the start of Scene V the mood is romantic as the audience meets Romeo and Juliet in their first night together after marriage, but by the end of the scene the audience starts to sense the anger and betrayal that some of the characters show. From now on till the rest of the play Juliet can no longer rely on any help or support from her household and also what makes it even worse for her is that Romeo has been banished.